Charter Schools

LFDA Editor

In Brief:

  • Charter schools are publicly-funded independent schools that are not subject to the same regulations as traditional schools.
  • There are currently 25 charter schools operating in New Hampshire.
  • Nearly all NH charter schools receive their funding directly from the state, currently at a rate of $6,597 per pupil.
  • Pro: Charter schools are able to experiment and innovate, creating new educational models that give parents greater choices for their children.
  • Con: Charter schools are a fiscally inefficient way of improving education, as they funnel money that would have gone to traditional schools into a parallel system.

Issue Facts

Charter schools are publicly-funded independent schools and may not charge tuition. They are considered part of the state school system and are accountable to state and federal authorities for compliance with the terms of their founding contract or charter, which often includes achievement-based standards.

Charter schools are not subject to all of the same regulations as traditional public schools, which some argue grants them autonomy for broader experimentation or innovation than may be possible within the standard public school system.

Charter Schools in NH

Charter schools were legalized in NH was passed in 1995. The law required prospective schools to get authorization from local school boards. However, no charter schools were successful in getting local approval. As a response, in 2003, the code was amended to enable the State Board of Education to approve charter schools. The first NH charter schools opened in 2005, fueled by the receipt of a federal start-up grant.

Currently, there are 25 charter schools operating within New Hampshire. As of October 1, 2015, there were 3,420 students enrolled in NH charter schools, constituting just under 2% of the state’s total student population.

Starting a Charter School

Charter schools in NH may be founded by:

  • A nonprofit organization such as a college, service club, or advocacy group
  • A group of two or more certified New Hampshire teachers
  • A group of ten or more parents

All charter schools must apply for authorization, receiving approval from a local school district, a town vote, or the Board of Education. Charters are valid for a term of five years, at which point a school must apply for renewal.

Currently, only one charter school in NH succeeded in receiving authorization from a local district. All other charter schools were approved by the Board of Education.

The Board of Education cannot approve new charter schools unless funding for them has been included in the state budget, or has been secured elsewhere. In the past, lack of additional funds has led to a moratorium on new charter school approvals.

Charter School Rules

NH requires that charter schools comply with the following rules:

  • At least 50% of teachers must be NH certified or have at least three years of teaching experience
  • Charter schools are not required to participate in collective bargaining agreements negotiated by their school district.
  • Charter schools must accept all students who apply, so long as they are residents of NH. If the number of applications exceeds the school’s capacity, a lottery must be held to select those who will be offered a place. However:
    • State law allows charter schools to give preference to students from the district in which they are located.  
    • Charter schools may design their own application processes, which can include essays and interviews.
  • School districts are only required to offer transportation for charter school students living within the school’s district. Those coming from outside the district must make their own transportation arrangements. 
  • Charter school curriculums must meet or exceed state standards.
  • A maximum of 10% of a district’s resident pupils may transfer to a charter school during any school year, unless a local school board approves lifting this restriction.

Funding

Funding for charter schools in NH varies based on how the school was authorized.

  • Schools authorized by a local school board are financed by that board’s school district, and must receive at least 80% of average per-pupil expenditures at the district’s traditional public schools.
  • Schools authorized by the SBE are financed directly by the state, and receive a per-pupil allocation of roughly $6,597. This is due to rise by $625 in 2018.

Charter school per-pupil reimbursement rates are lower than average per-pupil expenditures at traditional public schools, which averaged $14,901 in 2016.   Charter schools therefore seek funding from additional sources, including:

  • Start-up funds from federal grants. These may provide funding for up to three years, including up to 18 months of planning and program design.
  • Federal school funds, including funding through the No Child Left Behind Act and Title I.
  • Donations, fundraising, and other grant sources.

State aid for special education students is administered by the local school districts. School districts are therefore required to reimburse charter schools $1,956 or provide the equivalent in services for each special education student they enroll.

Accountability

Though charter schools are exempt from many of the regulations governing traditional public schools, NH law does require several levels of accountability.

  • Charter school contracts must include academic goals and benchmarks, and must also specify the tests or other means that will be used to assess whether the school has succeeded in meeting those goals. If a school fails to meet those goals, its charter cannot be renewed.
  • Charters can also be revoked before the end of the five-year term if a school is shown to be in violation of the standards or procedures of its charter, or for fiscal mismanagement or instability.
  • Charter school boards must regularly report to the SBE on their academic progress and financial status.
  • Charter schools must be insured, and facilities must pass state health inspections.
  • Charter schools are audited by the Department of Education at least once every three years.

Effectiveness

Statewide assessment results show NH charter school students generally performing better than traditional public school students, with higher proficiency in both math and reading.  However, critics argue that comparisons of overall test performance are misleading, as charter schools and traditional schools do not have equivalent student populations in terms of learning ability and special needs.

Studies comparing students who ‘won’ charter school lotteries and were enrolled with those who participated in the lottery but did not secure a place are considered a more reliable measure of comparative performance. However, no such study has yet been undertaken in New Hampshire. 

A recent study of this nature by the U.S. Department of Education found that on average, charter school performance was neither greater or less than that at traditional schools. However, the study noted that impact on performance varied greatly between individual charter schools. 

Possible Policy Responses

  • Charter school advocates have called for per-pupil funding to be raised to come more into line with average expenditures at traditional public schools.
  • Others have called for implementation of a cap or moratorium on new charter school approvals, citing budgetary concerns.
  • Teachers unions and others have sought to increase the percentage of charter school teachers required to have NH certification.
  • In recent years, legislators have sought to alternately strengthen or relax the rules guiding approval of new charter schools.
  • Some have called for greater oversight of charter schools,  including on-site reviews, requiring and carefully reviewing details of use of funds and fiscal policies, and monitoring potential conflicts of interest.  

 

PROS & CONS

"For" Position

By LFDA Editor

“NH should provide more funding for charter schools.”

  • As charter schools are freed from many of the regulations restricting other public schools, they are more able to innovate and potentially discover successful new models for education.
  • Charter schools provide families with more options for schooling, enabling them to find a program that best matches the needs of their individual child.
  • Current reimbursement rates mean that charter schools must try to compete with far less resources than those enjoyed at traditional public schools. This is unfair to charter school teachers and students.
  • Charter schools create competition for students, which motivates public schools to strive for greater excellence. 

"Against" Position

By LFDA Editor

“NH should not provide more funding for charter schools.”

  • Charter school populations are self-selecting, as more active and engaged parents are those that apply. This means charter school populations may lack equal proportions of disabled or special needs students, who are then thrust in greater numbers on the traditional public school system.
  • Charter schools are not a fiscally efficient solution to the need for innovation and experimentation in education, as they in effect require taxpayers to fund two separate types of school systems. It would be most cost effective to focus energy on improving existing schools.
  • Reports of fraud, waste, and other abuses by charter schools necessitate the implementation of a more rigorous, proactive form of oversight before more funding is authorized.  

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

Killed in the House

Provides that members of a chartered public school board of trustees shall be appointed by the governor and Executive Council.

Killed in the House

Requires chartered public schools to comply with all the laws applicable to public schools.

Killed in the House

Requires all charter school teachers to possess a "valid New Hampshire teaching credential." At the time of this bill's submission, half of a charter school's teachers must be certified or have at least 3 years teaching experience.

Killed in the House

Changes the requirements for a mission statement of a charter school.

Killed in the House

Requires that the nonprofit organization members and parents filing an application to establish a chartered public school must be New Hampshire residents.

In Committee

Establishes an independent chartered public school commission with the authority to approve new charter schools.

Tabled in the House

Allows for an annual refund of the pro-rata share of property taxes paid by a chartered public school pursuant to a lease of property from a non-exempt owner.

Killed in the House

Amends the amount of money per pupil the state would provide to public charter schools for each student, except for payments to the Virtual Learning Academy Charter School, which is unaffected by this bill. At the time of this bill's submission, the annual per pupil aid for public charter schools is $4,917.78 for kindergarten students, and $6,735.81 for grade 1-12 students. Under this bill, per pupil aid for all pupils (including kindergarten) would be calculated at 55% of the most recently available statewide average cost per pupil for public schools, including any differentiated aid.

Killed in the House

Allows the state Board of Education to deny a chartered public school application based on lack of state funding.

Killed in the House

Requires all chartered public school teaching staff to possess a valid New Hampshire teaching credential. (As of the time of submission of this bill, only 50% of teaching staff must be certified.)

Signed by Governor

Removes the requirement that a chartered public school is liable for additional costs for transporting students to a chartered public school within the student's school district.

Killed in the House

Requires chartered public schools to comply with all the laws applicable to public schools.

Killed in the House

Requires the members of a chartered public school board of trustees to be appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Executive Council.

Signed by Governor

Establishes a committee to study a chartered public school program officer position and to study funding for chartered public schools. The House amended the bill to instead establish the officer position without a study.

Signed by Governor

Establishes a commission to study special education in charter schools.

Killed in the House

Revises the requirements for a charter school application to expand on the mission statement requirement.

Killed in the House

Deletes a provision which prohibited the state board of education from denying a chartered public school application based on lack of state funding.

Signed by Governor

Provides that funding for chartered public school students receiving special education services be paid directly to the school district in which the student resides. The bill also excludes Individuals with Disabilities Education Act funds from the requirement that school districts direct certain federal funds to a chartered public school.

Signed by Governor

Gives chartered public school students the same access to co-curricular activities as other public school students.

Tabled in the Senate

Adjusts the additional grants for chartered public school pupils based on the Consumer Price Index, and increases the per pupil state funding for charter school students by $1,000.

Signed by Governor

Allows a town or city to adopt a property tax exemption for the portion of buildings and land rented or leased to a chartered public school facility by an owner who is not exempt from property taxation.

Should NH provide more funding for charter schools?

FOR
REPRESENTATIVES

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AGAINST
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Comments

Mike Coe
- Birmingham

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 11:06am

There isn't a day that goes by without Trump Lying about things. He's despicable and can't be trusted.

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Issue Status

A new charter school, the LEAF Charter School in Alstead, opened this fall. The curriculum will focus on science, technology, engineer, arts, and math (STEAM). 

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